Kidney Failure, Reasons, Symptoms & Treatment
Because of the many roles that the kidneys perform, they have always been an important component of the human body. By eliminating excess water from the body and also by holding onto them when the body requires them, it aids in controlling the water balance in the body. Extra minerals, such as sodium and potassium, leave your body through the urine when your kidneys are functioning properly. Other minerals, such calcium and phosphate, are also adjusted by the kidneys
Waste products like urea and Creatinine are removed from your body with the aid of your kidneys. When the body breaks down a protein source, such meat, urea and other wastes are produced. Muscles produce Creatinine as a waste product. Additionally, healthy kidneys produce hormones, which are vital molecules for your body. These hormones act as messengers in the bloodstream, controlling calcium balance, red blood cell formation, and blood pressure.
Kidney Failure Definition
f you have renal failure, 85–90% of your kidney function is lost, and your kidneys aren't functioning well enough to keep you alive. Kidney failure cannot be cured, but it is treatable and it is possible to live a long life. People with kidney failure live active lives and continue to do the things they love, proving that having kidney failure is not a death sentence. Kidney failure does not occur suddenly. It arises from a progressive decline in renal function. Before their kidneys fail, some patients do not even realise they have kidney disease.
Kidney Failure Causes- The two most frequent causes of kidney failure are high blood pressure and diabetes. They may also suffer harm as a result of illnesses, diseases, or other ailments. Kidney failure has a number of reasons, such as:
Diabetes- Even when well controlled, diabetes can lead to excessive blood pressure and renal damage (hypertension).
Glomerulonephritis- Inflammation or swelling of the kidney's minuscule nephron filtration units. Also referred to as nephritis
Polycystic Kidney Disease- A genetic illness known as polycystic kidney disease results in the formation of thousands of cysts in the kidneys
Urinary Reflux- An issue with the bladder valve that causes urine to leak back into the kidneys and cause scarring is known as urinary reflux
Medication- Lithium and Cyclosporin are two medications that can lead to renal failure. Permanent kidney damage used to be frequently brought about by continued abuse of compound analgesic medicines (now illegal). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (NSAIDs) may occasionally result in acute renal failure when taken in standard therapeutic doses.
Medullary Cystic Kidney Disease- It is an inherited kidney condition that causes cysts in the kidneys' centre to prevent the kidneys from functioning normally
Kidney Failure Symptoms
- Because persons with early kidney disease may not have any symptoms,
it can often be challenging to diagnose the condition. The disease's
symptoms typically manifest later in its course and may include:
If you fall into a high-risk category for renal illness, talk to your doctor and get the appropriate testing done. These symptoms can also be brought on by other conditions.
Kidney Failure Treatments
- For those who are close to kidney failure, there are three possible
When less than 10% of the kidney's original function is still present, dialysis or kidney transplants are required. These alternatives also go by the name of renal replacement treatment (RRT). Some people decide against dialysis or kidney transplants and opt for comprehensive conservative non-dialysis therapy.
Dialysis can be of two different types:
Haemodialysis (HD): You may perform it at home. You will have to receive your HD at a dialysis facility if you require access to specialised medical care or are unable to perform HD at home. A satellite centre for dialysis may be situated in a hospital or in the neighbourhood.
Peritoneal dialysis (PD): You can perform peritoneal dialysis by yourself at home, or you can train a family member to assist you. You will receive instruction from your medical team to help you manage at home. Peritoneal dialysis comes in two flavours: Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPO), which is performed during the day, and Automated Peritoneal Dialysis, which is performed at night (APO)
A kidney transplant is a form of treatment but not a cure for renal disease. Without the necessity for dialysis, a transplant allows for a more active life. It entails the transplantation of one kidney into the body of another individual, either from a living or deceased donor (recipient). After a kidney transplant, maintenance is necessary. For as long as you have the donated kidney, you will need to take medications to prevent your body from rejecting the kidney (anti-rejection). Dialysis therapy will once more be required if a kidney transplant fails. There is also a chance for a second transplant.
Comprehensive conservative care
If you determine that dialysis or transplantation are not the best options for you, this is the course of treatment that will be recommended to you. There are various reasons why people select comprehensive conservative care, including having additional health conditions, wanting a solution that emphasises quality of life rather than length of life, or having attempted dialysis and deciding to cease this treatment.
With comprehensive conservative treatment, medical professionals will still keep an eye on you and offer assistance. A customised diet and prescription drugs might be used to enhance your quality of life. When your kidneys entirely fail, comprehensive conservative care won't prolong your life.